April 5, 2006 4:00 AM PDT

Polyester fabric neutralizes stun gun jolt

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A Taser shotgun for long-range electrifying

February 14, 2006

The (painful) body electric

January 15, 2004
A consulting firm with a background in lightning warning systems has come up with a fabric that takes the powerful sting out of being hit with a stun gun or a cattle prod.

Thor Shield is a polyester fabric bonded to a conducted material that effectively loops the electricity coming from a nonlethal electricity weapon back to the weapon.

"If you are hit, the Taser gun won't work," said Greg Schultz, co-owner of G2 Consulting in Tucson, Ariz., which invented Thor Shield. "We return the voltage back to the gun."

Tasers and other electricity weapons work by jolting a person's body with enough electricity to overwhelm their neuromuscular system. When fired, a Taser launches two probes, connected to the gun by wires. When the probes hit a person's body, they create a circuit and 50,000 volts that pass through an individual's system.

A hit from a stun gun is incredibly painful and knocks individuals instantly to the ground in most circumstances. For maximum effect, the probes need to land four inches apart.

Because Thor Shield is conductive, it can complete the circuit with probes without having the electricity pass through an individual's body. In a video submitted by G2--and not independently tested by CNET News.com--Greg Williams, G2's other co-owner, takes a jolt to the head from a stun gun but remains unfazed. He is wearing a cap made of the material, according to G2. He also remains nonchalant in a Thor Shield windbreaker after being repeatedly zapped.

The Thor Shield fabric comes in different thicknesses. The thinnest version is only about a thirty-second of an inch thick and can be sewn into clothes.

"You can cut it with scissors. It is actually breathable," he said.

Schultz came up with the idea one night while watching a TV special on stun guns. "I thought, 'it is low amperage electricity. It can't be that difficult to send it back to the guy," he said. "The tough part was coming up with fabric that was breathable and won't come apart."

Thrill seekers, however, shouldn't look for Thor Shield at New York Fabrics. G2 sells the material only under nondisclosure agreements to law enforcement agencies and the military. The idea behind the fabric is that it could prevent officers from being hurt by their own weapons.

Recently in Ohio, for instance, a criminal suspect allegedly took a stun gun away from a police officer and shot her. This week, a similar incident occurred in Arizona.

"We're not going to put this on eBay or anything," he said. "This is negative in that it neutralizes their weapon, but it is positive in that it neutralizes a threat."

Still, G2 could spawn imitators, which could create headaches for stun gun manufacturers and police agencies, many of which have said that stun guns reduce the number of incidents in which police officers have to fire bullets.

Some law enforcement agencies are already in contact with the company. G2 has contacted Taser, but the company has not replied to G2. Taser did not returned calls for comment.

Controversy surrounds electricity weapons. Some organizations allege that the weapons have been responsible for some injuries and deaths. The guns can also be bought by consumers.

Several police agencies, however, say the weapons work well and give officers an alternative to guns in many situations. Medical studies sponsored by Taser and peer reviewed by physicians have shown no lasting health effects from a hit from one of the guns.

Schultz worked for several years as an engineer, building lightning detection systems like electric field mills. These machines, which monitor atmospheric stability and ambient electrical activity, get placed near structures that attract lightning, such as roller coasters. If the field mill sounds a warning, the structure or area can be evacuated.

See more CNET content tagged:
fabric, probe, gun, electricity, officer

48 comments

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Add your comment
Unless it penetrates
I don't know much about stun guns and tasers but if the needles were to penetrate the treated shirt/jacket/etc would the electricity pass through or is it effective if any of the two "needles" are touching it?
Posted by dragonbite (452 comments )
Reply Link Flag
Depends
Electricity always follows the path of least resistance. Skin is a poor conductor, so as long as the probes are in contact with the conductive fabric, the current will go through the fabric.
Posted by freemarket--2008 (5058 comments )
Link Flag
Not if the material is more conductive than your body, electricity follows the path of least resistance.
Posted by jimmc1952 (1 comment )
Link Flag
Unless it penetrates
I don't know much about stun guns and tasers but if the needles were to penetrate the treated shirt/jacket/etc would the electricity pass through or is it effective if any of the two "needles" are touching it?
Posted by dragonbite (452 comments )
Reply Link Flag
Depends
Electricity always follows the path of least resistance. Skin is a poor conductor, so as long as the probes are in contact with the conductive fabric, the current will go through the fabric.
Posted by freemarket--2008 (5058 comments )
Link Flag
Great
Now criminals will another way to avoid arrest. Why don't we just give cops nerf guns from now on?
Posted by schubb (202 comments )
Reply Link Flag
Well...
At least let little kids and old ladies wear it so when the cops try to zap them, it won't make the front page. ;-)
Posted by freemarket--2008 (5058 comments )
Link Flag
just aim
for the face
Posted by bob blob (118 comments )
Link Flag
Schubb said:
"Now criminals will another way to avoid arrest. Why don't we just give cops nerf guns from now on?"

The type of traing these cops get now makes the citizens the enemy, i.e, Iraq like tactics. Mostly these low i.q thug types that like to be called "sir". 99% of these thugs could never find a job where they would ever be caalled "sir". They are just plain too stupid to know that tasers can and do kill people. Most wouldn't care if they were aware of this fact.
Posted by Commander-Z (1 comment )
Link Flag
Great
Now criminals will another way to avoid arrest. Why don't we just give cops nerf guns from now on?
Posted by schubb (202 comments )
Reply Link Flag
Well...
At least let little kids and old ladies wear it so when the cops try to zap them, it won't make the front page. ;-)
Posted by freemarket--2008 (5058 comments )
Link Flag
just aim
for the face
Posted by bob blob (118 comments )
Link Flag
That makes sense
I can buy body armor to prevent harm from bullets and use it to rob a bank, but I can't buy this to prevent getting hit and disabled by a non-lethal weapon that could potentially stop my heart. Brilliant!

Your dog want's an anti-stun gun shirt!
Posted by Mr. Network (92 comments )
Reply Link Flag
Heart stopping jolt comment
If you bother to do some research, you will find that NONE of the "taser related deaths" have been attributed directly to the taser. ALL subjects have had previous underlying medical conditions, mostly HEART related! HMMMM!!!!! And to educate you a little further, the cause of death has also been atrributed to cocaine psychosis and other drug related side effects. I'm sure Taser International would be more than glad to provide you with useful reading materialto further your understanding of these "controversial" topics. For your information I work for an agency that has over 1100 officers young and old with all types of health/fitness levels and we have ALL tried the taser. We have yet to have an officer "die", so i guess that 1100 out of 1100 isn't bad!!
Posted by mpd025 (2 comments )
Link Flag
Well officer of 1100, maybe you hope, or think, the general public will buy your thumping post there. First of all, the LAST ENTITY anyone in a functioning society goes to for information on wether or not their product has problems - IS THE ENTITY ITSELF.
Of course, you're so bright and filled with research, you buy everything the sales corporation tells you and your officers ?.. LOL
Man, you really need to do some "research" on how stupid you think other are.
Second - if some joe citizen - unlawfully punches another joe citizen, or even an officer ( God forbid ) in the chest, and some prior medical condition, or illegal narcotic problem ( never in an officers case, of course, sir ) - is present, and the citizen or officer dies as a result, YOU sir, will be the LAST ONE to claim it isn't MURDER, I do believe.
You'll be so far from citing "prior medical conditions" and of course the hilariously favored "excited delirium" - no INDEED - you and the local DA will be raging for a murder conviction. ( ok, maybe raging is a bit much, but you get the point, I hope )
So, officer, don't be so quick to call another fellow citizen and poster - haphazardly, ignorant - "who needs to do some research" - and please, forget citing TASER - as the place to go for inforamtion on the safety and security of their product.
REALIZE- the "ignorant rubes" who "need to do research" - according to YOU - the officer who may have to use the TASER on the ignorant rubes - is also ONE OF THE LAST RESORTS the public has for believing "information" on the "safety and efficacy" of TASERS.
Finally - we - who aren't "in need or more research" have seen the police taser videos, and something the seemingly angry defensive police never notice is : ON THEIR TASING THEIR OWN VIDEOS:
1. they are inside with a soft cuddly wrestlers mat on the ground
2. The EMT's are nearby and have taken heart rate and blood pressure - or are definitely ready to if need be, or revive, or whatever else may need to be done, God forbid.
3. The police are amongst friends and co workers - who happily give them a warning, and a short shot
4. The "tased" "1100" have a couple of spotters- that CATCH THEM - and slowly coddle their limp butts to the matt... the soft wrestlers mat - while they purr love in their direction - laughter, and friendliness.
5. After the short shock session, the officer is assisted to his feet while immediately offered medical or a chair or some good friendly hugs or handshakes- or maybe if a tough guy- a good slap on the back.
______

Now sir officer - do you really think that compares with a citizen - confronted on the street - by overpowering force - perhaps wanting to flee- scared out of their wits from the armed, uniformed strangers surrounding them - then TASED to the TURF - their head slamming into the pavement face first - with the rest of the fine officers jamming a KNEE or two or three into their back or neck or noggin, and ripping away on their arms or other limbs while screaming at them to stay still ?
I mean really - I'd give you at least SOME CREDIT - if you guys JUMPED your fellow officers in the parking lot with a "TASER TEST" - let them SLAM into the pavement - then dove knee first into their kidneys while you beat them with the nightstick in the head a few times and told them to stop resisting...
OK ? If none of them die after that - and no medical EMT handy either - it takes quite a while for an ambulance to arrive on the street...
Now, I'm not against Officers of the LAW - by any means - I'm just against those who think tellingh these tales we "unresearched" have heard a dozen times already - is something others should put up with - and quietly accept. Now as an officer, you don't like liars, do you ?
Didn't think so.
Take this under advisement, you might have to "change your story" a bit - to get it to convince anyone.
Have a nice safe day.
Posted by SiliconDoc1 (13 comments )
Link Flag
That makes sense
I can buy body armor to prevent harm from bullets and use it to rob a bank, but I can't buy this to prevent getting hit and disabled by a non-lethal weapon that could potentially stop my heart. Brilliant!

Your dog want's an anti-stun gun shirt!
Posted by Mr. Network (92 comments )
Reply Link Flag
Heart stopping jolt comment
If you bother to do some research, you will find that NONE of the "taser related deaths" have been attributed directly to the taser. ALL subjects have had previous underlying medical conditions, mostly HEART related! HMMMM!!!!! And to educate you a little further, the cause of death has also been atrributed to cocaine psychosis and other drug related side effects. I'm sure Taser International would be more than glad to provide you with useful reading materialto further your understanding of these "controversial" topics. For your information I work for an agency that has over 1100 officers young and old with all types of health/fitness levels and we have ALL tried the taser. We have yet to have an officer "die", so i guess that 1100 out of 1100 isn't bad!!
Posted by mpd025 (2 comments )
Link Flag
Well officer of 1100, maybe you hope, or think, the general public will buy your thumping post there. First of all, the LAST ENTITY anyone in a functioning society goes to for information on wether or not their product has problems - IS THE ENTITY ITSELF.
Of course, you're so bright and filled with research, you buy everything the sales corporation tells you and your officers ?.. LOL
Man, you really need to do some "research" on how stupid you think other are.
Second - if some joe citizen - unlawfully punches another joe citizen, or even an officer ( God forbid ) in the chest, and some prior medical condition, or illegal narcotic problem ( never in an officers case, of course, sir ) - is present, and the citizen or officer dies as a result, YOU sir, will be the LAST ONE to claim it isn't MURDER, I do believe.
You'll be so far from citing "prior medical conditions" and of course the hilariously favored "excited delirium" - no INDEED - you and the local DA will be raging for a murder conviction. ( ok, maybe raging is a bit much, but you get the point, I hope )
So, officer, don't be so quick to call another fellow citizen and poster - haphazardly, ignorant - "who needs to do some research" - and please, forget citing TASER - as the place to go for inforamtion on the safety and security of their product.
REALIZE- the "ignorant rubes" who "need to do research" - according to YOU - the officer who may have to use the TASER on the ignorant rubes - is also ONE OF THE LAST RESORTS the public has for believing "information" on the "safety and efficacy" of TASERS.
Finally - we - who aren't "in need or more research" have seen the police taser videos, and something the seemingly angry defensive police never notice is : ON THEIR TASING THEIR OWN VIDEOS:
1. they are inside with a soft cuddly wrestlers mat on the ground
2. The EMT's are nearby and have taken heart rate and blood pressure - or are definitely ready to if need be, or revive, or whatever else may need to be done, God forbid.
3. The police are amongst friends and co workers - who happily give them a warning, and a short shot
4. The "tased" "1100" have a couple of spotters- that CATCH THEM - and slowly coddle their limp butts to the matt... the soft wrestlers mat - while they purr love in their direction - laughter, and friendliness.
5. After the short shock session, the officer is assisted to his feet while immediately offered medical or a chair or some good friendly hugs or handshakes- or maybe if a tough guy- a good slap on the back.
______

Now sir officer - do you really think that compares with a citizen - confronted on the street - by overpowering force - perhaps wanting to flee- scared out of their wits from the armed, uniformed strangers surrounding them - then TASED to the TURF - their head slamming into the pavement face first - with the rest of the fine officers jamming a KNEE or two or three into their back or neck or noggin, and ripping away on their arms or other limbs while screaming at them to stay still ?
I mean really - I'd give you at least SOME CREDIT - if you guys JUMPED your fellow officers in the parking lot with a "TASER TEST" - let them SLAM into the pavement - then dove knee first into their kidneys while you beat them with the nightstick in the head a few times and told them to stop resisting...
OK ? If none of them die after that - and no medical EMT handy either - it takes quite a while for an ambulance to arrive on the street...
Now, I'm not against Officers of the LAW - by any means - I'm just against those who think tellingh these tales we "unresearched" have heard a dozen times already - is something others should put up with - and quietly accept. Now as an officer, you don't like liars, do you ?
Didn't think so.
Take this under advisement, you might have to "change your story" a bit - to get it to convince anyone.
Have a nice safe day.
Posted by SiliconDoc1 (13 comments )
Link Flag
mpd025, you are obviously a clueless, research bias consumed shill for the growing American police state! Obviously your fellow pigs are not dying in the carefully controlled comfort of their training studios!

Why don't you solicit the public to come give them their "taser" tests! I would be happy to slam my knee in your back after I tase you, and hold the taser on max for as long as you pigs do to women and children!

FTP!
Posted by LiberalsAreFascists (2 comments )
Link Flag
any of us could do the same thing
Based on this bit of news, if I was looking to beat Tasers, I could
make a vest of light aluminum screen. Sleeves would help, as
would a cap. It would work as well under one's coat as on the
outside. That's the low budget way, all you perpetrators out there.
Posted by JackfromBerkeley (136 comments )
Reply Link Flag
Traditional aproach
For that matter, there is a lot of semi-decorative chain mail and coifs out there that would also work against knives. A touch heavy, but far prettier IMHO :-)
Posted by (7 comments )
Link Flag
There already is conductive thread/fabric
An old laptop I have (3+ years old) has some
conductive fabric wrapped around the signal
lines to serve as ground and signal shield.
Also, conductive thread has been on the market
for some time as well.

I hope they don't try to patent this as it is
merely application of pre-existing technology.
And, why was it so hard for them to make it
breath, or did they not know there was
conductive material out there already?

People have been talking about (and working on)
placing electronic devices in clothes for some
time.
Posted by hawkeyeaz1 (569 comments )
Link Flag
There already is conductive thread/fabric
An old laptop I have (3+ years old) has some
conductive fabric wrapped around the signal
lines to serve as ground and signal shield.
Also, conductive thread has been on the market
for some time as well.

I hope they don't try to patent this as it is
merely application of pre-existing technology.
And, why was it so hard for them to make it
breath, or did they not know there was
conductive material out there already?

People have been talking about (and working on)
placing electronic devices in clothes for some
time.
Posted by hawkeyeaz1 (569 comments )
Link Flag
If you own a winter parka
That's enough to stop a taser, those things are just about usless. Now these on the other hand <a class="jive-link-external" href="http://www.spytechs.com/stun_guns/baton300.htm" target="_newWindow">http://www.spytechs.com/stun_guns/baton300.htm</a>
Posted by Bob Brinkman (556 comments )
Link Flag
any of us could do the same thing
Based on this bit of news, if I was looking to beat Tasers, I could
make a vest of light aluminum screen. Sleeves would help, as
would a cap. It would work as well under one's coat as on the
outside. That's the low budget way, all you perpetrators out there.
Posted by JackfromBerkeley (136 comments )
Reply Link Flag
Traditional aproach
For that matter, there is a lot of semi-decorative chain mail and coifs out there that would also work against knives. A touch heavy, but far prettier IMHO :-)
Posted by (7 comments )
Link Flag
There already is conductive thread/fabric
An old laptop I have (3+ years old) has some
conductive fabric wrapped around the signal
lines to serve as ground and signal shield.
Also, conductive thread has been on the market
for some time as well.

I hope they don't try to patent this as it is
merely application of pre-existing technology.
And, why was it so hard for them to make it
breath, or did they not know there was
conductive material out there already?

People have been talking about (and working on)
placing electronic devices in clothes for some
time.
Posted by hawkeyeaz1 (569 comments )
Link Flag
There already is conductive thread/fabric
An old laptop I have (3+ years old) has some
conductive fabric wrapped around the signal
lines to serve as ground and signal shield.
Also, conductive thread has been on the market
for some time as well.

I hope they don't try to patent this as it is
merely application of pre-existing technology.
And, why was it so hard for them to make it
breath, or did they not know there was
conductive material out there already?

People have been talking about (and working on)
placing electronic devices in clothes for some
time.
Posted by hawkeyeaz1 (569 comments )
Link Flag
If you own a winter parka
That's enough to stop a taser, those things are just about usless. Now these on the other hand <a class="jive-link-external" href="http://www.spytechs.com/stun_guns/baton300.htm" target="_newWindow">http://www.spytechs.com/stun_guns/baton300.htm</a>
Posted by Bob Brinkman (556 comments )
Link Flag
This is a "high impact" story?
Why?

How about some computer news!?
Posted by bobby_brady (765 comments )
Reply Link Flag
This is a "high impact" story?
Why?

How about some computer news!?
Posted by bobby_brady (765 comments )
Reply Link Flag
Bulletproof Vest
A bulletproof vest (body armor) will also stop a stun gun from doing its job, and is legal to purchase.

If criminals really are interested in protecting themselves from police weapons, why would they bother with a conductive windbreaker when they could have real armor?
Posted by William Squire (151 comments )
Reply Link Flag
Bulletproof Vest
A bulletproof vest (body armor) will also stop a stun gun from doing its job, and is legal to purchase.

If criminals really are interested in protecting themselves from police weapons, why would they bother with a conductive windbreaker when they could have real armor?
Posted by William Squire (151 comments )
Reply Link Flag
Thor-Shield is not 100% effective with Tasers
My company Stinger Defense LLC (<a class="jive-link-external" href="http://www.StingerDefense.com" target="_newWindow">http://www.StingerDefense.com</a>) has found how the Thor-Shield materials work and basically how it counters a Stun Gun and Tasers effects. We have come up with a very similar material for testing.

What Thor-Shield did not show in the videos and what we have found from testing a similar material is that the Taser "barbs" can in fact still work. It's really simple - the barbs are passing through the material and still make contact with the skin - it will still have full effect.

However if something like the "flack" jacket is used and the Thor-Shield material is on that; then the barbs are stopped and then the Taser does not work as claimed.

Most criminals are not wearing over 1" thick leather or "flack" jackets - so essential the Taser will still work. I do think this is a great thing for law enforcement as this would be the perfect material to be used on bullet-proof vest since almost all officer are now required to wear them while on-duty.

As far as stun guns are concerned the product does indeed work as describe - at least the test material we tried did - which we made ourselves. Again, I do not think this would affect police officers, as I have not heard of to many using a stun gun, but rather a Taser or Stinger System (no affiliation with Stinger Defense). Stun guns are primarily a civilians lower cost alternative to a Taser.

More information can be found at Stinger Defense - Non-Lethal Self Defense (Stun Guns, Tasers, Pepper Spray) : Thor-Shield
My company Stinger Defense LLC (<a class="jive-link-external" href="http://www.StingerDefense.com" target="_newWindow">http://www.StingerDefense.com</a>) has found how the Thor-Shield materials work and basically how it counters a Stun Gun and Tasers effects. We have come up with a very similar material for testing.

What Thor-Shield did not show in the videos and what we have found from testing a similar material is that the Taser "barbs" can in fact still work. It's really simple - the barbs are passing through the material and still make contact with the skin - it will still have full effect.

However if something like the "flack" jacket is used and the Thor-Shield material is on that; then the barbs are stopped and then the Taser does not work as claimed.

Most criminals are not wearing over 1" thick leather or "flack" jackets - so essential the Taser will still work. I do think this is a great thing for law enforcement as this would be the perfect material to be used on bullet-proof vest since almost all officer are now required to wear them while on-duty.

As far as stun guns are concerned the product does indeed work as describe - at least the test material we tried did - which we made ourselves. Again, I do not think this would affect police officers, as I have not heard of to many using a stun gun, but rather a Taser or Stinger System (no affiliation with Stinger Defense). Stun guns are primarily a civilians lower cost alternative to a Taser.

More information can be found at Stinger Defense - Non-Lethal Self Defense (Stun Guns, Tasers, Pepper Spray) - <a class="jive-link-external" href="http://www.StingerDefense.com/thor-shield" target="_newWindow">http://www.StingerDefense.com/thor-shield</a>

Nate Neel - VP
Nate.neel@stingerdefense.com
Stinger Defense LLC
www.StingerDefense.com
Posted by stingerD (2 comments )
Reply Link Flag
Thor-Shield is not 100% effective with Tasers
My company Stinger Defense LLC (<a class="jive-link-external" href="http://www.StingerDefense.com" target="_newWindow">http://www.StingerDefense.com</a>) has found how the Thor-Shield materials work and basically how it counters a Stun Gun and Tasers effects. We have come up with a very similar material for testing.

What Thor-Shield did not show in the videos and what we have found from testing a similar material is that the Taser "barbs" can in fact still work. It's really simple - the barbs are passing through the material and still make contact with the skin - it will still have full effect.

However if something like the "flack" jacket is used and the Thor-Shield material is on that; then the barbs are stopped and then the Taser does not work as claimed.

Most criminals are not wearing over 1" thick leather or "flack" jackets - so essential the Taser will still work. I do think this is a great thing for law enforcement as this would be the perfect material to be used on bullet-proof vest since almost all officer are now required to wear them while on-duty.

As far as stun guns are concerned the product does indeed work as describe - at least the test material we tried did - which we made ourselves. Again, I do not think this would affect police officers, as I have not heard of to many using a stun gun, but rather a Taser or Stinger System (no affiliation with Stinger Defense). Stun guns are primarily a civilians lower cost alternative to a Taser.

More information can be found at Stinger Defense - Non-Lethal Self Defense (Stun Guns, Tasers, Pepper Spray) : Thor-Shield
My company Stinger Defense LLC (<a class="jive-link-external" href="http://www.StingerDefense.com" target="_newWindow">http://www.StingerDefense.com</a>) has found how the Thor-Shield materials work and basically how it counters a Stun Gun and Tasers effects. We have come up with a very similar material for testing.

What Thor-Shield did not show in the videos and what we have found from testing a similar material is that the Taser "barbs" can in fact still work. It's really simple - the barbs are passing through the material and still make contact with the skin - it will still have full effect.

However if something like the "flack" jacket is used and the Thor-Shield material is on that; then the barbs are stopped and then the Taser does not work as claimed.

Most criminals are not wearing over 1" thick leather or "flack" jackets - so essential the Taser will still work. I do think this is a great thing for law enforcement as this would be the perfect material to be used on bullet-proof vest since almost all officer are now required to wear them while on-duty.

As far as stun guns are concerned the product does indeed work as describe - at least the test material we tried did - which we made ourselves. Again, I do not think this would affect police officers, as I have not heard of to many using a stun gun, but rather a Taser or Stinger System (no affiliation with Stinger Defense). Stun guns are primarily a civilians lower cost alternative to a Taser.

More information can be found at Stinger Defense - Non-Lethal Self Defense (Stun Guns, Tasers, Pepper Spray) - <a class="jive-link-external" href="http://www.StingerDefense.com/thor-shield" target="_newWindow">http://www.StingerDefense.com/thor-shield</a>

Nate Neel - VP
Nate.neel@stingerdefense.com
Stinger Defense LLC
www.StingerDefense.com
Posted by stingerD (2 comments )
Reply Link Flag
Polyester and graphite? Will these work? Graphite is conductive. I've seen "cloth" made from aluminum foil with duct tape on each side. This can be sewn into clothing. If more than 1 piece of "cloth" is used, one can use thin wire for some of the thread in the seams. Police and government have grown too powerful, and any method the citizens can use to protect themselves is fair.
Posted by cyberscan (19 comments )
Reply Link Flag
 

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