November 1, 2005 4:00 AM PST

Red Hat looks under Linux's hood

Trying to take a more active role in open-source programming, Red Hat has created a team of 34 programmers to work on nothing but next-generation software, the company plans to announce Tuesday.

The move is enabled by the Linux seller's surging profit and ensures the programmers will have time for the development instead of worrying about customer support requirements, said Brian Stevens, Red Hat's new chief technology officer. The company plans to double the team's size in the next nine months.

The team has several priorities, Stevens said: incorporating the Xen software to let a computer run several independent operating systems at the same time; improving the "stateless Linux" software to try to make desktop Linux a cost-effective option; and maturing programming tools such as the SystemTap probing software.


What's new:
Linux reseller Red Hat has created a team of 34 programmers to work on nothing but next-generation open-source software.

Bottom line:
The company is trying to rapidly respond to specific customer requests for its software, even if it has to work more on its own.

More stories on Linux development

"We're building an emerging-technologies team," Stevens said. "There have been a lot of great ideas that we haven't been able to give an incubator environment to before."

The move signals a more active phase in Red Hat's engineering efforts, which generally have incorporated software changes once they've attained broad support among open-source programmers. Now the company is trying to rapidly respond to specific customer requests for its software, even if it has to work more on its own.

"In the past, Red Hat worked like most open-source companies: They wait for the developer community to arrive at a solution, get it working, and build momentum among users. Then Red Hat comes in and turns it into a supported package and distributes it," Ideas International analyst Tony Iams said. "What they're saying now is they're not necessarily going to wait until this shakes out."

Red Hat's profits and user base gives it the clout to pull off some of its development ambitions, even if the broader open-source community doesn't accept its approach or implementations, he added. Despite its savvy about open-source developer relationships, the company is unlikely to wait for consensus to build around its choice of Xen as a focus of work, for example. "It's hard to see how they're not going to be the heavy," Iams said.

Red Hat reported net income of $16.7 million in its most recent quarter and raised its estimates for future results. The company's gains in the Linux market, which stem chiefly from its flagship Red Hat Enterprise Linux product, contrast with the plight of its chief rival, Novell. That Waltham, Mass.-based company is expected to initiate layoffs and restructuring to try to trim expenses and improve its business prospects.

Unlike some companies, such as IBM and Novell, that sell both proprietary and open-source software, Red Hat works only on open-source projects. Thus it isn't likely that Xen management tools or other in-house development projects will become proprietary products from the Raleigh, N.C.-based company. Indeed, CEO Matthew Szulik argued last week that technology suppliers use proprietary software to keep a "knee on (the) throat" of their customers, against those clients' wishes.

Xen rising
Xen is designed to create several independent instances of an operating system, each called a virtual machine, on a server. Once virtual machines are built, they can be stored on a hard drive, duplicated or transferred to a different computer over a network.

The open-source software is one of several virtualization projects under way, the other main contenders being EMC's VMware and Microsoft's Virtual Server. All share the goal of making a server--and ultimately, a group of servers--run multiple jobs more efficiently.

Red Hat committed earlier to using Xen, but it now has formally pledged to incorporate the software into its next version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. The company has said that version is due to arrive in late 2006.

Stevens described how Red Hat plans to charge for the software in the virtualized realm: It will permit customers to buy one subscription per server that permits them to run as many instances of RHEL as desired. Right now the company essentially sells multiple subscriptions for a server, but charges less.

"We don't think the way to monetize that value is charging per virtual machine," Stevens said. "If somebody is deploying software in a virtual environment, they'll start treating the use of a virtual machine as a precious commodity, if they have to start counting VMs."

Microsoft will let a customer run as many as four instances of its upcoming Windows Server 2003 R2 Enterprise Edition on a server at no extra charge. In addition, the top-end DataCenter edition of the successor to that product, code-named Longhorn Server, will permit unlimited versions to operate.

Xen is available in Fedora, a free version of Linux that Red Hat uses to try to quickly bring new technology to maturity. The company is considering making Xen run by default with the forthcoming Fedora Core 5, Stevens said. "It's a good way to get a lot of testing," he said.

Red Hat also is looking at higher-level management tools for Xen. The management tools would help customers to automatically install

CONTINUED: The state of Stateless Linux…
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Virtual goal is to run more efficiently? what?
>> All share the goal of making a server--and ultimately, a group of servers--run multiple jobs more efficiently. <<

I think Mr. Shankland needs to leave the description of what a Virtual machine does to the experts, he clearly has no business describing it himself.

A Virtual will ALWAYS be LESS efficient than running the native host operating system. The goal of a Virtual machine is NOT to run multiple jobs more efficiently (as Mr. Shankland would have you believe -- they will ALWAYS run LESS efficiently than a native host!) No, the goal of a Virutual machine is to allow flexibility, portability and reuse of machine configurations, along with the more efficient use of HARDWARE, since a single machine can now run several virtual machines, albeit in a LESS EFFICIENT manner.

I think Mr. Shankland does a disservice to those of us that understand and use Virtual machines on a daily basis. Perhaps he might quote an authority next time, rather than offering up his own, incorrect, assessment.
Posted by JBorders_CNet (2 comments )
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Reading comprehension is your friiend
>> All share the goal of making a server--and ultimately, a group of servers--run multiple jobs more efficiently. <<

Read that again. And again, until you figure out that it is possible for one thing that will never match another to run more efficiently-RELATIVE TO ITSELF.
Posted by Bill Dautrive (1179 comments )
Link Flag
Reporter responds: *overall* efficiency increases
I think we disagree on semantics, at least to an extent.

Indeed, a single application running on a virtual machine consumes more processor cycles than one running on bare hardware, although of course hardware support for virtualization in the form of Intel's VT and AMD's Pacifica will reduce that. But one of the main reasons so many companies in the computing industry are pushing virtualization, and the use of virtual machines specifically, is that you can wring more use out of a server running many different tasks.

The argument goes like this: Virtual machines increase the utilization of server hardware, and software to monitor the infrastructure will let administrators or automation software move virtual machines from one computer to another to deal with ups and downs in processing demands.

The upshot is that what took some number of servers in the past will take fewer of the same type of server in the future. Virtualization might cause an individual process to consume more computing cycles than it would otherwise, but overall, servers are being used more efficiently.
Posted by Shankland (1858 comments )
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