With Google's six-week update schedule, the new releases are milestones that Chrome users pass--often not necessarily noticing given the software's silent auto-update mechanism. But there are significant new features coming with the new beta.
Also in Chrome 10 (Windows | Mac | Linux) is hardware-accelerated video, which can increase computing efficiency and spare battery life; settings controls that move from a pop-up dialog box to a browser tab; and password synchronization among different installations of Chrome (though not, as with Firefox, with Chrome on Android).
Google isn't talking much yet about its Chrome 11 (Windows | Mac | Linux) plans, but it looks like one interesting feature on the way is "chromoting," which lets a Chrome browser remotely take over another machine over a network. It's not unlike LogMeIn or other remote desktop applications, but those can't be installed on a Chrome OS machine, so chromoting gives a browser-based mechanism. That, in turn, would let Chrome OS in effect remotely run some native software that wouldn't run on a Chrome OS machine.