A new extension from developer Tom Lerendu called Chrome to iPhone brings a similar level of convenience to users who wish to send links directly to their phones. Users with the extension installed can send whatever page they're looking at in Chrome to their iPhone. Though unlike on a compatible Android device, these links or application shortcuts don't automatically fire up the browser (or relevant application). Instead, users need to save a personalized link to their Safari bookmarks or their iOS device's home screen; clicking on that then launches the browser and takes you to that page.
By nature this will never have the kind of deep integration Google has built into its own solution, which incidentally requires that users are running version 2.2 of the Android operating system (something few phones currently offer). But it certainly beats sending those links to yourself in e-mails.
Something similar can be had for Firefox users with Mozilla's Firefox Home iPhone app, which can mirror whatever tabs you have open in your desktop browser, as well as any bookmarks and history.